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Microorganisms are the oldest organisms on earth, the most abundant and (for some species at least) the most easily manipulated. They are ubiquitous in the world around us, and if a nuclear winter or a natural event that would destroy a large part of living beings, they are probably among the organizations best equipped to restart an evolutionary process.

Today, a part of our lives is conditioned not only by pathogens of humans, animals and plants, but also bacteria and saprophytic fungi or symbiotic activity which improves or allows growth plants, recycling of organic matter, destruction and recycling of waste and pollution ... not forgetting those used for the production of important metabolites and transformation agro-food.

Major theoretical questions which we try to answer about identity determinants for bacterial and fungal interactions with plant taxa redundancy for a given function, gene flow in complex environments and prediction of nitrogen flow in the ground. These issues are shared with other key laboratories microbial ecology. However, the combination of a mechanistic approach and an ecological approach to characterize both natural populations and their in situ expression level of a given function is not yet widespread and constitutes a strong laboratory. It will provide in the near future any meaning to the study of the "microbial biodiversity."